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Sejarah Permen Karet

>> Monday, December 17, 2007

Although the history of chewing gum is somewhat cloudy, there is evidence that the early Greeks chewed on a substance made from a resin of the Mastic Tree indigenous to Turkey.

In North America, Native Americans chewed on a substance that made from the resin of Spruce Trees. This practice continued until the early 19th Century and has been accredited as one of the first modern examples of Chewing Gum.

In the late 19th Century, Paraffin or edible wax was introduced as a substitute for Spruce Resin. Although this trend was short lived, we do see similar examples in modern candies such as Wax Fangs or Wax Lips or the retro candy classic, wax bottles.

Although flavors vary, all chewing gum consists of basic ingredients. The base is often made from resins from tropical trees as well as synthetic materials such as polyvinyl acetate, wax or rubber byproducts. The remainder is an amalgamation of corn syrups, sugars and hundreds of flavorings not to mention artificial colors.

The base is melted to a soluble liquid and then combined with the byproducts and stored in a solid block. It is then combined with colorings, flavors and sweeteners prior to packaging.

Bubble Gum, unlike regular chewing gum, has a base that consists of rubber latex and this is what gives it elasticity.

Early chewing gums were a challenge as they were hard to chew and the flavor, if any, lasted a very short time. As chewing gum became more popular, manufacturers began to experiment with new flavors and non-solid, often liquid, centers.

The advent of modern chewing gum is attributed to Mexican General, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, who became infamous as one of the participants of the Alamo As with most great inventions, it was more luck than planning.

After being exiled from Mexico, he introduced Thomas Adams Sr. to Chicle which is a substance derived from Sapota or Saodilla trees. Adams wanted to use the elastic ingredient in experiments to find ways to make more economical car tires.

Although he never was able to produce an economical tire substitute, in the end, he created one, if not the, first mass marketed chewing gums called Adams New York Chewing Gum. The first patent for chewing gum was awarded in 1869 although Adams did not create the first mass production chewing gum assembly line until 1871.

In 1880, William White combined corn syrup with Chicle and added peppermint extract thus creating the first flavored gum called YUCATAN. In the same period, Dr. Edward Beeman added pepsin powder and created a gum that was to serve as a "digestive aid." Beemans Chewing Gum, still available today, is a derivative of this discovery.

Chewing Gum became an important part of American culture and is often associated with being the catalyst behind the vending business. As early as 1888, vending machines appeared at subway stations in Manhattan offering different varieties of chewing gum.

In 1893, the William Wrigley Company, based in Chicago, IL, introduced two new chewing gums, Juicy Fruits and Wrigley's Spearmint, which to this day, remain some of the best selling chewing gums in the world.

In an attempt to compete with Wrigley's success, the American Chicle Company was established in 1899 and was an amalgamation of Yucatan Gum, Adams Gum, Beeman's Gum and Kiss Me Gum.

In 1899, Franklin V.Canning, a dentist, introduced Dentyne Gum and later that year, Chiclets were formally introduced. Both chewing gums are still available today although the formulas have changed.

The industry, fiercely competitive, saw little change until 1914. That year, following the success of Juicy Fruit and Wrigley's Spearmint, the William Wrigley Jr. Company introduced Doublemint Gum. Later that year, Thomas Adams introduced Adam's Clove Gum that to this day remains a retro candy "cult" classic!

American Chicle, in hopes of narrowing competition, purchased the company that invented Chiclets and went on to acquire the Dentyne Company while William Wrigley Jr. Co., in 1923, became one of the first candy companies to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange.

1928 was a very important year as Walter Diemer, an accountant for Fleer Gum, created the first formula for Bubble Gum. Fleer Gum had been searching for years to produce a formula that allowed bubbles to be blown that didn't stick and this is exactly what Diemer stumbled upon. It was also one of the first times that food coloring was used and pink became, and remains, the industry standard.

Fleer sold the rights for Dubble Bubble Bubble Gum to Marvel Entertainment Group and this gum was included in packages of trading cards until the late 80's. In 1988, Concord Confections, the largest manufacturer of bubble gum balls, purchased the rights to Dubble Bubble Bubble Gum.

In the early 1930's, Peter Paul Co., the inventors of Almond Joy and Mounds Candy Bars made a foray into the chewing gum market with the introduction of Charcoal Gum which was advertised, not so subtly, on the side of their candy bar boxes. They continued to make chewing gum until the late 1940's.

In 1938, two brothers started a company in Brooklyn called Topps Gum. The gum was sold at cash registers and is considered to the first "changemaker" as the marketing strategy was to get consumers to spend their change. This gum sold well but it wasn't until post World War II that they introduced the product that would take the nation by storm: Bazooka Bubble Gum!

This became, and remains, one of the best selling bubble gums of all time and in 1953, they decided to include the first comic in each piece. In 1950, Topps introduced the first trading card but it wasn't until two years later when Sy Berger, a baseball enthusiast, decided to make a card focusing exclusively on America's pastime.

Although Topps Company diversified into other non bubble gum novelty candies such as the Baby Bottle Pop, Push Pop and Ring Pop to name but a few, they remain one of the largest bubble gum manufacturers in the world with sales over 3 billion dollars!

The 1940's, the war years, saw the introduction of Rainblo Bubble Gum by Leaf Confectionary Co. and the William Wrigley Jr. Co., introduced Orbit specifically as a wartime product. Wrigley chewing gum was standard issue in the soldier's field rations, as was the Hershey Milk Chocolate Bar. Dubble Bubble also offered bubble gum squares that were included in ration kits.

In the 1950's, as consumers became more health conscious, Sugarless gum was introduced. The formula remained standard until 1970 when the FDA banned the active ingredient, Cyclamate. In 1983, Aspartame (known as Equal or Nutrasweet) began its use as a sugar free sweetener. Later, Sorbitol was introduced and is commonly used today as diabetics more readily tolerate it.

The original idea behind sugar free gum is accredited to a dentist named Dr. Petrulis. Chewing gums contained Ammonia and he discovered that this substance counteracted acid that lead to tooth decay. Dr. Petrulis sold his company to the William Wrigley Co., and in the late 1960's, they introduced the first sugar free bubble gum called Blammo.

Wrigley Company continued to create some of the best-loved chewing gums and it was not until 1975 when then introduced Wrigley's Freedent Gum (designed not to stick to dentures) and then a year later, Wrigley's Big Red. In 1979, they introduced Hubba Bubble Bubble Gum and in 1980, they introduced Big League Chew (shredded bubble gum).

Ever keeping with the times, Wrigley introduced Extra Sugarfree Gum in 1984 and in 1994 they introduced Wrigley Winterfresh Gum. As of writing, the William Wrigley Jr. Company is the largest manufacturer of chewing gum in the world. Its headquarters are in Chicago, IL but it has factories in at least ten (10) foreign countries!

Today, there are hundreds of varieties of chewing gum and companies such as Amurol, a division of Wrigley, continue to push the boundaries with unique products such as Bubble Gum Tape, Bubble Beepers, Bubble Jugs and Ouch Gum to name but a few.


Mengusir Hama Penggerek Buah Kakao dengan Semut

>> Wednesday, December 5, 2007

Di tengah kegundahan petani di Pulau Sulawesi akan serangan hama penggerek buah kakao, sebuah inspirasi muncul dari Universitas Hasanuddin. Hama yang "membusukkan" buah kakao tersebut ternyata bisa diatasi secara alami dan tidak menambah beban biaya bagi petani.
"Stop pestisida dan insektisida! Kerahkan saja semut merah untuk bersarang dan menghuni pohon kakao," ujar La Daha di Makassar, Selasa (30/10), seusai dikukuhkan sebagai guru besar pada Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Hasanuddin (Unhas).
Dalam upacara yang dipimpin Rektor/Ketua Senat Universitas Hasanuddin Idrus A Paturusi, La Daha memaparkan bahwa pada perkebunan kakao di beberapa daerah—Bone, Soppeng, dan Luwu—terdapat sekurang-kurangnya tujuh spesies semut. Dari tujuh spesies itu terdapat empat spesies yang memangsa hama penggerek buah kakao, yaitu Oecophylla smaragdina (semut rangrang), Crematogaster sp (semut hitam), Anoplolepis longipes, dan Iridomyrmex sp.
Peraih magister (1991) dan doktor (1997) di Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB) ini menguraikan, semut rangrang (berwarna merah) merupakan predator yang memiliki tingkat pengendalian paling tinggi. Sementara Iridomyrmex membawa dan menyebarkan spora-spora cendawan Phytophthora yang menyebabkan penyakit busuk buah kakao dan penyakit kanker batang.
Khusus pada kasus serangan hama penggerek batang kakao, La Daha menguraikan bahwa masalah itu berawal dari ulah serangga tertentu yang menebarkan larva ke lekukan kulit buah kakao. Selang 4-5 hari, larva menetas dan muncullah mikroorganisme yang menggerek buah kakao hingga biji. Akibat terlumatnya plasenta buah, biji kakao langsung menghitam, mengeras, mengering, dan menempel pada kulit buah kakao. Seketika biji kakao itu tak berharga lagi.
Dengan adanya semut rang- rang di pohon kakao, aktivitas penebaran larva hama penggerek batang kakao bisa dikendalikan. Jadi, sesungguhnya hama yang menghancurkan buah kakao merupakan sebangsa serangga juga.
"Biarlah kita mengatasi serangga dengan serangga pula. Hindari memakai larutan kimia," papar La Daha.
Memanfaatkan limbah
Bagaimana caranya memberdayakan semut merah itu sebagai sahabat petani kakao? "Gampang!" kata lelaki kelahiran Muna, 15 Agustus 1953, ini. Usus ayam yang biasa dibuang di sekitar pasar unggas dijadikan sebagai perangsang. Usus ayam diletakkan pada salah satu dahan. Protein yang terkandung dalam usus mengundang semut merah berdatangan lalu bersemayam dan "merakit rumahnya" dengan dedaunan kakao.
Bagi masyarakat Sulawesi, usus ayam biasanya tak dikonsumsi dan dibuang begitu saja di sekitar pasar tradisional. Dari pada mencemari lingkungan, lebih baik usus itu dimanfaatkan sebagai sahabat bagi petani. "Sebetulnya, dengan usus ikan juga boleh. Intinya, kita manfaatkan limbah, termasuk jeroan hewan yang acap kali menebar bau kurang sedap bagi warga," kata La Daha.
Bagaimana dengan buah lain? Terhadap buah mangga yang selalu membusuk karena serangan larva serangga tertentu juga bisa diatasi dengan cara ini.
Sumber: Kompas, Rabu, 31 Oktober 2007


Quality of chocolate

>> Tuesday, December 4, 2007

There are different food standards in almost every country. Since 1999 there are new united standards for chocolate in EU. Chocolate in EU may contain up to 5% of vegatable fats. Chocolate producers must state on label the percentage of cocoa solids in chocolate. In Switzerland dark chocolate must contain at least 35% of cocoa solids and milk chocolate at least 25% cocoa solids and at least 14% of milk solids. In USA milk chocolate must contain at least 10% of cocoa mass ( in USA called chocolate liquor) and 12% of milk solids. Chocolate must not contain other vegetable fats that cocoa butter. Sweet chocolate - at least 15% cocoa mass Bittersweet chocolate - at least 35% cocoa mass Chocolates with high content of cocoa became popular in 1990´s in Europe. Dark chocolates contained 40 - 60% of cocoa solids in past. Now there are many chocolates with 70 - 85% at market and some producers have even 99% chocolate bar!


Menyantap Cokelat, Menyantap Kamasutra

KEHIDUPAN seperti sekotak cokelat, kita tidak pernah tahu rasa apa yang akan kita dapatkan. Ungkapan yang diambil dari film berjudul Forrest Gump ini tidak berlebihan bila Anda menempatkan cokelat dalam kehidupan masyarakat pelahap cokelat Barat. Dalam satu kotak cokelat praline (pralin), kita tidak pernah tahu apa isi yang terdapat di dalam tiap potongnya.
PRALIN-cokelat yang diberi isi-dimaksudkan memberi kejutan kepada pencicipnya. Ada pralin berongga yang berisi cairan minuman beralkohol, ada pralin yang diisi cokelat juga tetapi diberi rupa-rupa aroma alami atau minuman beralkohol seperti sampanye atau likor. Ramuan ini merupakan rahasia setiap pembuat cokelat sehingga rasa cokelat Godiva yang hanya dijual di kota dunia tertentu dan di toko khusus berbeda dari cokelat merek lain. Di dalam setiap kotak, biasanya penjual akan memasukkan bermacam-macam rasa untuk Anda tebak tiap kali Anda memasukkan sepotong cokelat ke mulut.
Ada begitu banyak variasi cokelat menunjukkan perjalanan panjang makanan yang asal bahan bakunya kokoa, dari Amerika Selatan ini dalam sejarah manusia. Aneka variasi ini juga menunjukkan tingkat pencanggihan cokelat untuk memenuhi selera yang terus berkembang.
Di Jakarta, cokelat pun diadopsi sebagai bagian gaya hidup. Sulit mendapat angka statistik besarnya konsumsi cokelat, tetapi secara kasatmata toko yang khusus menjual cokelat bertambah, begitu juga dengan merek cokelat baru. Belum lagi aneka kue yang memakai pelapis atau isi cokelat yang ketika sampai di lidah terasa seperti meleleh karena lembutnya.
Indikator naiknya tingkat kemakmuran sebagian anggota masyarakat? Perlu ahli ekonomi untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini. Yang jelas di Jakarta rentang harga cokelat sangat lebar, mulai dari Rp 700 per batang sampai Rp 800.000 untuk satu ons cokelat pralin. Karena itu, ada yang dijual dalam bentuk permen loli yang hanya terasa manis tanpa ada rasa pahit khas cokelat serta roma yang harum, tetapi ada pula yang disajikan sebagai penutup jamuan makan malam di hotel bintang lima.
Rentang harga yang begitu lebar mewakili jenis bahan baku yang dipakai selain tentu saja harga gengsi yang melekat pada produk tersebut. Cokelat yang berharga Rp 700 itu mungkin hanya warnanya saja yang cokelat, tetapi tidak mengandung cukup kakao dan jumlah terbanyak adalah lemak nabati dan gula. Meskipun sama-sama tumbuhan, lemak cokelat tidak disebut lemak nabati seperti lemak yang berasal dari sawit, kedelai, biji bunga matahari, dan tanaman penghasil minyak nabati. Karena sifat kimia dan fisikanya yang khas, lemak kakao, ya, disebut sebagai lemak kakao saja atau cocoa butter. Lemak kakao itu yang akan menentukan bagaimana cokelat akan meleleh begitu sampai di lidah.
Adapun cokelat yang berharga ratusan ribu rupiah itu dibuat dari lemak kakao dan cocoa liquor yang dibuat dari pasta hasil menggiling biji kakao yang sudah difermentasi, tanpa campuran lemak nabati dalam ramuan tertentu ditambah isi yang juga dibuat khusus. Bila cokelat itu diterbangkan dari negara asalnya dalam bentuk produk akhir seperti cokelat Huize van Wely yang diterbangkan sebagai produk akhir dari Noordwijk di Belanda ke toko cokelat dengan nama sama di Kemang, Jakarta Selatan, tak heran harganya bisa menjadi begitu mahal.
"SIAPA sih yang tidak suka cokelat? Dari anak-anak sampai orang dewasa, semua makan cokelat. Dari yang harganya ratusan rupiah sampai belasan ribu rupiah per potong, semua memiliki pasar," kata Louis Tanuhadi, Manajer Pengembangan Bisnis Nasional The Embassy Tulip of Chocolate. Tulip adalah produsen cokelat untuk industri dan penamaan embassy (kedutaan besar) lebih untuk tujuan promosi bahwa cokelat merupakan sebuah wilayah khas dan unik. "Sekarang orang sudah mau membeli sepotong kecil cokelat dengan harga Rp 3.500. Kalau dulu, kan banyak orang merasa sayang. Lebih baik uang segitu dipakai beli nasi atau roti, lebih ngenyangin," tambah Tanuhadi.
Dieter Speer yang memiliki jabatan sebagai duta besar The Embassy Tulip of Chocolate setuju bahwa cokelat merupakan bagian dari gaya hidup untuk masyarakat kelas menengah-atas untuk memuaskan cita rasa mereka yang sudah beranjak dari sekadar memenuhi kebutuhan dasar hilang dari rasa lapar.
Dapur Cokelat di Jalan KH Ahmad Dahlan, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta Selatan, membuka toko karena tumbuhnya kebutuhan akan cokelat sebagai gaya hidup. Pilihan pada cokelat ternyata tidak salah. Saat hari Valentine bulan Februari lalu, toko yang baru berusia dua tahun ini kebanjiran pembeli anak-anak remaja sampai-sampai toko tutup lebih awal dari biasa.
"Kami sampai membatasi pembelian mereka. Kalau sudah dapat enggak boleh beli lagi. Biar adil, semua kebagian," kata Herni Indriasari yang menjadi penyelia di Dapur Cokelat Jalan KH Ahmad Dahlan yang desain interior tokonya dibuat semirip mungkin dengan dapur di rumah kebanyakan sehingga pembeli merasa akrab.
Khusus untuk hari Valentine itu, Dapur Cokelat membuat cokelat berbentuk hati dalam beragam ukuran dan harga, mulai dari Rp 500 sampai Rp 30.000 per buah. Toko yang berukuran mungil itu juga kebanjiran pembeli ketika menjelang Paskah dan Natal. Harga yang relatif terjangkau banyak kalangan serta ragam yang lumayan banyak, menjadikan Dapur Cokelat salah satu toko cokelat favorit.
Selain cake dengan lapis cokelat, Dapur Cokelat juga menjual penganan seperti keripik singkong yang dicelup cokelat. Sementara pralin mereka memiliki rasa kopi, mint yang segar, jeruk, beri biru, stroberi, dan kismis dengan harga Rp 10.000 per ons. Sementara pralin yang diisi rum atau brandi dihargai lebih mahal, Rp 15.000 per ons. "Jenis ini yang beli umumnya anak-anak muda," tutur Herni yang mengatakan harga yang terjangkau itu karena Dapur Cokelat menggunakan bahan baku cokelat blok buatan Indonesia.
Paduan rasa pahit yang unik dengan aroma khas kakao dalam menghasilkan cokelat yang legit dan tidak menyangkut di leher ketika ditelan adalah rahasia sukses setiap merek cokelat. Adapun untuk pralin, ciri khas dan kelezatan ada pada isi. Ini pula yang membuat Orasa Mandiraatmadja berani membuka toko kue dan cokelat Le Luxe untuk melengkapi restoran masakan Thailand Jitlada yang sudah berdiri sebelumnya. Pralin di Le Luxe memiliki rasa kacang-kacangan hingga aneka buah-buahan termasuk alpukat. Tetapi, yang menurut Orasa merupakan keunikan Le Luxe dan tidak terdapat di toko cokelat lain adalah cokelat Kamasutra.
Cokelat Kamasutra yang dibuat dalam dua jenis warna, yaitu putih dan cokelat itu penamaannya meminjam judul buku kuno dari India tentang teknik bercinta dan membentuk profil beberapa adegan Kamasutra. "Biasanya pembelinya orang asing dan mereka membeli untuk dihadiahkan kepada teman. Ada juga yang membeli untuk dipajang karena kata mereka unik," jelas Orasa di tokonya yang berada di kawasan Jalan Sultan Agung, Jakarta Pusat.
DI toko cokelat Huize van Wely yang menyatu dengan restoran kecil, untuk mempertahankan agar cokelat yang diterbangkan langsung dari Belanda tidak merosot kualitasnya disediakan lemari pajang yang menjaga suhu tetap stabil pada 18 derajat Celsius. Itu suhu yang paling optimum karena cokelat di toko ini dibuat segera meleleh ketika dikulum.
"Standar cokelat kami sama seperti di Belanda. Di sini kami cuma memajang cokelat buatan tangan itu di toko ini yang interiornya juga ditata seperti toko di Belanda," papar Rizal Adhita, kepala pemasaran toko cokelat di Kemang itu.
Sebagai bagian gaya hidup, kemasan menjadi sangat penting sebagai pembentuk citra. Karena itu, selain interior toko Huize van Wely membuat kemasan yang eksklusif. Kotak untuk pralin, misalnya, tidak hanya terbuat dari kertas. Bila pembeli ingin sesuatu yang lebih eksklusif, tersedia pralin di dalam kotak kayu berpernis berisi 13 potong cokelat dengan harga Rp 800.000.
Menurut Rizal, kemasan sangat penting dalam bisnis cokelat. Kemasan yang sangat eksklusif langsung memberikan lompatan nilai tambah meskipun cokelatnya sama. Hal ini disebabkan sebagian pelanggan yang umumnya terdiri dari warga asing membeli cokelat untuk hadiah.
"Pelanggan kulit putih biasanya lebih suka dark chocolate," tutur Rizal lagi. Cokelat jenis ini rasanya lebih pahit karena tidak menggunakan campuran susu dan hanya sedikit mengandung gula. Sementara itu, pembeli lokal biasanya lebih suka cokelat yang rasanya cenderung manis.
Perbedaan rasa cokelat maupun isinya yang telah mengalami pencanggihan ini menyebabkan jenis cokelat sangat beragam. Orang awam mungkin tidak terbiasa membedakan berdasarkan tekstur, bau, warna, dan bahkan bunyi cokelat saat dipatahkan. Tetapi, menurut Francis Mestre, pemilik toko cokelat L’atelier du Chocolat, sifat-sifat itu membedakan antara cokelat berkualitas baik dan tidak. Satu hal lagi tentu saja, bagaimana cokelat itu terasa meleleh ketika di mulut. "Seluruh rasanya berpadu mencair dengan lembut di lidah dan rongga mulut tanpa menempel di langit-langit mulut. Tidak terlalu manis, seimbang rasanya," kata Mestre menggambarkan kualitas cokelat.
Sebelum membuka tokonya tahun 1998 lalu, Mestre melakukan penelitian kecil-kecilan tentang kualitas cokelat yang dijual di toko swalayan. Kata laki-laki yang mengaku berasal dari keluarga pembuat cokelat di Paris (Perancis) dan Quebec (Kanada) ini rata-rata cokelat di toko swalayan memiliki kadar kokoa 37 persen. Mestre lalu membuat cokelat dengan kadar kakao 50-70 persen. Hasilnya adalah cokelat pahit yang tanpa campuran susu, cokelat dengan campuran susu, dan cokelat putih yang terbuat dari lemak cokelat saja.
Meskipun Mestre membuat cokelatnya di sini, hampir semua bahan baku diimpor dari Perancis. "Tadinya jahe saya ambil produk lokal. Tetapi, karena kualitasnya kurang bagus, agak kotor, saya ganti dengan jahe impor. Bahan cokelat yang tersedia di Indonesia juga terlalu lembek," kata Mestre memberi alasan.
Meskipun penggemar cokelat terus bertambah di sini, tetapi menurut Mestre mereka belum menjadi kelompok yang cukup berpengaruh untuk bisa menghasilkan sebuah tren rasa. Kebanyakan pembeli cokelat di sini masih berhitung soal harga dan belum memperhatikan perbedaan rasa.
Keadaan ini berbeda dari di Perancis dan Eropa umumnya di mana tradisi mengonsumsi cokelat sudah ada sejak abad ke-17. Saat ini, di Eropa yang sedang digemari adalah cokelat yang menggunakan penyedap alami seperti daun mint dan herbal alami. "Sekarang yang sedang melanda Eropa adalah cokelat dengan aroma rasa bunga," tutur Mestre yang sempat belajar membuat kue selama satu tahun di Lenôtre, Perancis. Barangkali, aroma bunga itu untuk menambah rasa nyaman yang merupakan sifat alami kandungan teobromin dalam kakao, karena situasi ekonomi yang sedang suram.
KAKAO boleh asal-usulnya datang dari Amerika Selatan, tetapi ketika menjadi cokelat maka Eropa dan Amerika Serikat adalah produsennya. Siapa yang tidak kenal cokelat Hershey’s dan Marsh yang diproduksi massal di Amerika dan diekspor ke berbagai penjuru dunia. Sementara itu, dari Eropa, negara Swiss dan Belgia dikenal sebagai penghasil cokelat meskipun mereka tidak punya pohon kakao.
Bila ditelusur balik, suku Aztec dan Maya di Amerika Selatan adalah orang-orang yang telah lebih dulu memanfaatkan kakao jauh sebelum Colombus menginjakkan kaki ke benua baru itu. Rahasia minuman dari tumbuhan pemberian dewa-begitu orang Aztec di Meksiko menyebut-terbuka ke dunia luar ketika penguasa Aztec, Montezuma, menjamu tamu dari Spanyol Hernán Cortéz tahun 1519. Setelah Cortez membawa kakao ke Spanyol, selama 100 tahun minuman yang dibuat dari kakao dan diberi aroma vanili dan kayu manis itu menjadi rahasia sebelum diperkenalkan ke Perancis.
Sekarang, sumber kakao utama dunia menurut Departemen Pertanian (Deptan) Indonesia bukan lagi dari Amerika Selatan, melainkan Pantai Gading dan Ghana di Afrika, serta Indonesia. Sialnya, negara-negara ini tidak pernah dikenal sebagai penghasil cokelat melainkan penghasil kakao saja.
"Kakao yang dihasilkan Indonesia dan negara-negara lain dibawa ke Eropa lalu diproses dijadikan cokelat, dan diekspor lagi ke Indonesia. Ini sebuah ironi untuk Indonesia. Oleh karena itu, kami ingin mempromosikan Indonesia bukan saja sebagai penghasil biji kakao, tetapi juga sebagai penghasil cokelat berkualitas," tutur Dieter Speer.
Salah satu usaha memperkenalkan Indonesia sebagai penghasil cokelat adalah dengan mengadakan pameran Jakarta Chocolate Expo yang diadakan tiap dua tahun sekali. Tahun ini yang merupakan penyelenggaraan kedua, pameran diadakan di Gedung Bidakara, Jakarta, pada tanggal 9-11 Oktober. "Tujuan kami mempelihatkan kepada dunia internasional Indonesia juga bisa menjadi penghasil cokelat," kata Tanuhadi. Tulip mengajak para pengguna cokelat industri ikut berpameran dengan sasaran bakeri, toko cokelat, dan hotel yang merupakan pemakai cokelat industri. Perancang busana Samuel Wattimena diminta memeragakan baju yang terbuat dari cokelat. "Supaya orang juga tahu bahwa cokelat itu beragam sekali pemanfaatannya," tutur Samuel.
Menurut Tanuhadi, cokelat Indonesia selalu dipakai sebagai bahan campuran karena memiliki rasa pahit yang khas. "Yang memiliki rasa pahit khas itu memang jenis criollo yang ditanam di Jawa. Jadi, criollo Jawa ini selalu dipakai di dalam campuran beragam bahan baku cokelat," jelas Tanuhadi. Jadi, ibarat pepatah sapi punya nama kerbau punya susu, untuk kakao Indonesia boleh punya kakao, tetapi yang punya nama Swiss atau Belgia.
Sayangnya, jenis criollo yang merupakan jenis cokelat mulia itu penanamannya di Indonesia terbatas hanya di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur karena sejarah perkebunan besar di Indonesia. Di luar Jawa, kakao yang ditanam menurut Ir Purusowarso yang merupakan kepala subdirektorat di Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan Deptan adalah jenis lindak atau forestero dan ditanam petani yang mendapat bibitnya dari Kalimantan Utara. Yang jelas, kakao asal Indonesia sebagian besar diekspor ke Amerika dan Eropa, baik sebagai bahan baku industri makanan, industri kimia, dan industri kosmetik.
Nilai tukar rupiah yang merosot sejak tahun 1997 ikut memberi andil terhadap perubahan gaya hidup. Tetapi, mereka yang sudah pernah merasakan cokelat tentu tetap mau merogoh kocek untuk membeli camilan kesukaan mereka itu, entah untuk dinikmati sendiri atau dimakan bersama pacar. Ini pula yang menaikkan penjualan cokelat industri Tulip sampai 30 persen selama tiga tahun terakhir dan membuat toko-toko cokelat yang menggunakan bahan baku lokal bisa diterima pembeli.
"Hampir semua hotel di Jakarta menjadi pembeli kami sekarang, juga bakeri dan toko cokelat," jelas Tanuhadi. "Bahan baku cokelat boleh sama, tetapi tukang masak di tiap toko akan membuat rasa cokelat berbeda-beda. Pintar-pintarnya tukang masaklah mengolah rasa."
Jadi, kalau Anda mengambil sepotong pralin dari satu kotak cokelat, tidak perlu khawatir rasa apa yang akan Anda dapatkan. Nikmati saja ketika cokelat itu meleleh di mulut sambil membayangkan ada bagian dari cokelat itu yang asal-usulnya dari Jawa.
Sumber: Minggu, 21 September 2003


Chew Gum

  1. Chew Gum and Life Longer
  2. Permen Karet Berusia 5000 Tahun


History of Candy

  1. Ginger in Every Countries
  2. History of Candy
  3. History of Candy Packing
  4. History of Catton Candy
  5. History of Valentine Candy


A Brief History of Chocolate

  • Confectionery history has a record of at least 4,000 years, when Egyptians displayedtheir pleasures on papyrus. Sweetmeats were being sold in the marketplace in 1566 BC.Yet chocolate didn't appear on the scene until the ancient Aztec and Mayan culturesdiscovered the value of the cacao plant. It is reputed to have originated in the Amazonor Orinoco basin.* In 600 A.D. the Mayans migrated into the northern regions of South America,establishing the earliest known cocoa plantations in the Yucatan. It has been argued thatthe Mayans had been familiar with cocoa several centuries prior to this date. Theyconsidered it a valuable commodity, used both as a means of payment and as units ofcalculation.
  • Mayans and Aztecs took beans from the "cacao" tree and made a drink they called"xocoatl." Aztec Indian legend held that cacao seeds had been brought from Paradise andthat wisdom and power came from eating the fruit of the cacao tree.* Ancient chronicles report that the Aztecs, believing that the god Quetzalcoatl traveledto earth on a beam of the Morning Star with a cacao tree from Paradise, took his offeringto the people. They learned from Quetzalcoatl how to roast and grind the cacao seeds,making a nourishing paste that could be dissolved in water. They added spices andcalled this drink "chocolatl," or bitter-water, and believed it brought universal wisdomand knowledge.
  • The word "chocolate" is said to derive from the Mayan "xocoatl"; cocoa from the Aztec"cacahuatl." The Mexican Indian word "chocolate" comes from a combination of theterms choco ("foam") and atl ("water"); early chocolate was only consumed in beverageform. As part of a ritual in twelfth-century Mesoamerican marriages, a mug of thefrothy chocolate was shared.* Arthur W. Knapp, author of The Cocoa and Chocolate Industry (Pitman, 1923) pointsout that if we believe Mexican mythology, "chocolate was consumed by the Gods inParadise, and the seed of cocoa was conveyed to man as a special blessing by the God ofthe Air."
  • Ancient Mexicans believed that Tonacatecutli, the goddess of food, andCalchiuhtlucue, the goddess of water, were guardian goddesses of cocoa. Each year theyperformed human sacrifices for the goddesses, giving the victim cocoa at his last meal.
  • Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) was dissatisfied with the word"cocoa," so renamed it "theobroma," Greek for "food of the gods."* Christopher Columbus is said to have brought back cacao beans to King Ferdinandfrom his fourth visit to the New World, but they were overlooked in favor of the manyother treasures he had found.
  • Chocolate was first noted in 1519 when Spanish explorer Hernando Cortez visited thecourt of Emperor Montezuma of Mexico. American historian William Hickling'sHistory of the Conquest of Mexico (1838) reports that Montezuma "took no otherbeverage than the chocolatl, a potation of chocolate, flavored with vanilla and spices,and so prepared as to be reduced to a froth of the consistency of honey, which graduallydissolved in the mouth and was taken cold." The fact that Montezuma consumed his"chocolatl" in goblets before entering his harem led to the belief that it was anaphrodisiac.
  • In 1528 Cortez brought chocolate back from Mexico to the royal court of King CharlesV. Monks, hidden away in Spanish monasteries, processed the cocoa beans and keptchocolate a secret for nearly a century. It made a profitable industry for Spain, whichplanted cocoa trees in its overseas colonies.* It took an Italian traveler, Antonio Carletti, to discover the chocolate treasure in 1606and take it into other parts of Europe.
  • "With the decline of Spain as a power, the secret of cacao leaked out at last, and theSpanish Crown's monopoly of the chocolate trade came to an end. In a few years theknowledge of it had spread through France, Italy, Germany, and England." (The NestleCompany, Inc., White Plains, New York, The History of Chocolate and Cocoa, p. 2.)
  • When the Spanish Princess Maria Theresa was betrothed to Louis XIV of France in1615, she gave her fiancé an engagement gift of chocolate, packaged in an elegantlyornate chest. Their marriage was symbolic of the marriage of chocolate in the Spanish-Franco culture.
  • The first chocolate house was reputedly opened in London in 1657 by a Frenchman.Costing 10 to 15 shillings per pound, chocolate was considered a beverage for the eliteclass. Sixteenth-century Spanish historian Oviedo noted: "None but the rich and noblecould afford to drink chocolatl as it was literally drinking money. Cocoa passed currencyas money among all nations; thus a rabbit in Nicaragua sold for 10 cocoa nibs, and 100 ofthese seeds could buy a tolerably good slave."
  • Chocolate also appears to have been used as a medicinal remedy by leading physiciansof the day. Christopher Ludwig Hoffmann's treatise Potus Chocolate recommendschocolate for many diseases, citing it as a cure for Cardinal Richelieu's ills.
  • Chocolate traveled to the Low Countries with the Duke of Alba. By 1730, it haddropped in price from $3 per lb to being within the financial reach of those other thanthe very wealthy. The invention of the cocoa press in 1828 helped further to cut pricesand improve the quality of chocolate by squeezing out some of the cocoa butter andgiving the beverage a smoother consistency.
  • With the Industrial Revolution came the mass production of chocolate, spreading itspopularity among the citizenry.
  • Discussing the introduction of coffee, tea, and cocoa into Europe, Isaac Disraeli (1791-1834) wrote in his six-volume Curiosities of Literature: "Chocolate the Spaniardsbrought from Mexico, where it was denominated chocolatl. It was a coarse mixture ofground cacao and Indian corn with roucou; but the Spaniards, liking its nourishment,improved it into a richer compound with sugar, vanilla and other aromatics. We hadChocolate houses in London long after coffee houses; they seemed to have associatedsomething more elegant and refined in their new form when the other had becomecommon."
  • Prince Albert's Exposition in 1851 in London was the first time the United States wasintroduced to bonbons, chocolate creams, hand candies (called "boiled sweets"), andcaramels.
  • An 1891 publication on The Chocolate-Plant by Walter Baker a Co. records that, "Atthe discovery of America, the natives of the narrower portion of the continentbordering on the Caribbean Sea were found in possession of two luxuries which havebeen every where recognized as worthy of extensive cultivation; namely, tobacco andchocolate."
  • Chocolate was introduced to the United States in 1765 when John Hanan broughtcocoa beans from the West Indies into Dorchester, Massachusetts, to refine them withthe help of Dr. James Baker. The first chocolate factory in the country was establishedthere.
  • Yet, chocolate wasn't really accepted by the American colonists until fishermen fromGloucester, Massachusetts, accepted cocoa beans as payment for cargo in tropicalAmerica.
  • Where chocolate was mostly considered a beverage for centuries, and predominantlyfor men, it became recognized as an appropriate drink for children in the seventeenthcentury. It had many different additions: milk, wine, beer, sweeteners, and spices. Drinking chocolate was considered a very fashionable social event.
  • Eating chocolate was introduced in 1674 in the form of rolls and cakes, served in thevarious chocolate emporiums.
  • In 1747 Frederick the Great issued an edict forbidding the hawking of chocolate.
  • By 1795, Dr. Joseph Fry of Bristol, England, employed a steam engine for grinding cocoabeans, an invention that led to the manufacture of chocolate on a large scale.
  • Around 1847, Fry & Sons sold a "Chocolat Delicieux a Manger," which is thought to bethe first chocolate bar for eating.
  • Nestle (The History of Chocolate and Cocoa, p. 3) declares that from 1800 to the presentday, these four factors contributed to chocolate's "coming of age" as a worldwide foodproduct:1.The introduction of cocoa powder in 1828;2.The reduction of excise duties;3.Improvements in transportation facilities, from plantation to factory;4.The invention of eating chocolate, and improvements in manufacturing methods.
  • By the year 1810, Venezuela was producing half the world's requirements for cocoa,and one-third of all the cocoa produced in the world was being consumed by theSpaniards.
  • The invention of the cocoa press in 1828 by C.J. Van Houten, a Dutch chocolate master,helped reduce the price of chocolate and bring it to the masses. By squeezing out cocoabutter from the beans, Van Houten's "dutching" was an alkalizing process.
  • In his 1923 volume The Cocoa and Chocolate Industry, Arthur W. Knapp attributesthe rise in popularity of cocoa to these innovations:1.The introduction by Van Houten of cocoa powder as we now know it.2.The reduction of the duty to a low figure which remained constant for a number ofyears.3.The great improvements that have taken place in the methods of transport.4.Improvements in the manufacture of eating chocolate.
  • Daniel Peter of Vevey, Switzerland, experimented for eight years before finallyinventing a means of making milk chocolate for eating in 1876. He brought his creationto a Swiss firm that today is the world's largest producer of chocolate: Nestle.
  • In 1879 Rodolphe Lindt of Berne, Switzerland, produced chocolate that melted on thetongue. He invented "conching," a means of heating and rolling chocolate to refine it.After chocolate had been conched for 72 hours and had more cocoa butter added to it,the original "fondant" was created.
  • Cadbury Brothers displayed eating chocolate in 1849 at an exhibition in Bingley Hall atBirmingham, England.
  • Swiss confiseur Jules Sechaud of Montreux introduced a process for manufacturingfilled chocolates in 1913.
  • The New York Cocoa Exchange, located at the World Trade Center, was begun October1, 1925, so that buyers and sellers could get together for transactions.
  • Brazil and the Ivory Coast are leaders in the cocoa bean belt, accounting for nearly halfof the world's cocoa.
  • While the United States leads the world in cocoa bean importation and chocolateproduction, Switzerland continues as the leader in per capita chocolate consumption.
  • In 1980 a story of chocolate espionage hit the world press when an apprentice of theSwiss company of Suchard-Tobler unsuccessfully attempted to sell secret chocolaterecipes to Russia, China, Saudi Arabia, and other countries.
  • By the 1990s, chocolate had proven its popularity as a product, and its success as a bigbusiness. Annual world consumption of cocoa beans averages approximately 600,000tons, and per capita chocolate consumption is greatly on the rise. Chocolate manufacturing in the United States is a multibillion-dollar industry. According to NormanKolpas (1978, p. 106), "We have seen how chocolate progressed from a primitive drink and food of ancientLatin American tribes -- a part of their religious, commerce and social life -- to a drinkfavored by the elite of European society and gradually improved until it was incomparably drinkable and, later, superbly edible. We have also followed its complextransformation from the closely packed seeds of the fruit of an exotic tree to a widevariety of carefully manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. Beyond the historical,agricultural and commercial, and culinary sides to chocolate, others: affect on our healthand beauty, and inspiration to literature and the arts."


Sejarah Coklat

Coklat sangat menarik perhatian kita karena rasanya yang manis dan meleleh di dalam mulut pada saat dimakan. Sekarang ini coklat hadir dalam berbagai macam bentuk dan rasa. Tidak salah memang kalau ada banyak sekali penggemar coklat di dunia ini.

Sejarah Coklat
Coklat berasal


Dahulu, Cokelat Digunakan sebagai Pengganti Uang

YMM, ymm, ymmm... Siapa sih yang tidak senang makan cokelat? Rasanya manis menggigit dengan campuran susu, gula, buah dan aroma lain. Selain di dalam permen, cokelat dapat ditemukan sebagai campuran makanan/kue dan minuman. Saat ini permen cokelat sangat mudah didapatkan di mana-mana. Bentuk dan ukurannya pun bermacam-macam, dikemas sedemikian rupa sehingga sangat menarik.



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